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Make LLVM fast again

Written by Nikita Popov / Original link on May. 10, 2020

The front page of the LLVM website proudly claims that: Clang is an “LLVM native” C/C++/Objective-C compiler, which aims to deliver amazingly fast compiles […] I’m not sure whether this has been true in the past, but it certainly isn’t true now. Each LLVM release is a few percent slower than the la…


PHP 7 Virtual Machine

Written by Nikita Popov / Original link on Apr. 14, 2017

This article aims to provide an overview of the Zend Virtual Machine, as it is found in PHP 7. This is not a comprehensive description, but I try to cover most of the important parts, as well as some of the finer details. This description targets PHP version 7.2 (currently in development), but near…




PHP's new hashtable implementation

Written by Nikita Popov / Original link on Dec. 21, 2014

About three years ago I wrote an article analyzing the memory usage of arrays in PHP 5. As part of the work on the upcoming PHP 7, large parts of the Zend Engine have been rewritten with a focus on smaller data structures requiring fewer allocations. In this article I will provide an overview of th…


Methods on primitive types in PHP

Written by Nikita Popov / Original link on Mar. 13, 2014

A few days ago Anthony Ferrara wrote down some thoughts on the future of PHP. I concur with most of his opinions, but not all of them. In this post I’ll focus on one particular aspect: Turning primitive types like strings or arrays into “pseudo-objects” by allowing to perform method calls on them.…